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General Issue & Current Issue

Science Letter: An International journals

General Issue & Current Issues

S.no Title and Authors Name
1.

Sex Linked Molecular Marker Gene in Medicinal Plants - Review

Arshdeep Singh, Tarun Kandhari, Charu Rajpal, Pushpa C. Tomar* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i01.001

Plants have been used as a medicinal plant since humans have existed. Paleontologists have found the remains of medicinal plants such as Opium poppies, Cannabis, and Ephedra from around 60,000 years ago. Medicinal properties are attributed due to the bioactive compounds obtained from the plant parts whether it is root, bark, shoot, seeds, flower, berry or fruits. The metabolites which are obtained from the reproductive tissues or parts of female plants like flower, fruits and seeds are discussed in this review. To avoid the resources being wasted on nurturing the male plants, it would be beneficial if one can detect and discard the male plants at seedling stage. Many plants species are sexually dimorphic which can be seen by naked eyes. However, determination of sex of a plant is quite difficult at early stage i.e. before flowering. There has been a huge up-rise in plant biotechnology and breeding for the development of molecular genetic data. Development of sex linked molecular marker genes in plants is a great discovery and have been useful in agriculture industries, nurseries etc. Sex linked molecular marker genes are used to identify whether the plant is male or female. The male plants are used for pollination and female plants bear fruits, so if it can be determined that whether the plant is male or female at the seedling stage then it will be helpful in saving our cost, time, and labor. Only one male plant can be used to pollinate many female plants. Our review paper focuses on some sex-linked molecular marker genes in medicinal important plants which have been identified and are employed in determination of sex at early stages of the plant development
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2

Biodiversity: An Entrepreneurship Mission for the World to Conserve for Living Creatures in Future Prospects

Subhalakshmi Das, Babita Kumari* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i01.002

The term Biodiversity wasnamed by Walter Rosen, 1985. Approximately 50 million species of plants, animals & microbes are existing in the world. Among this only 2 million are identified so far. Biodiversity also includes: Variability of genus, Variability of varieties, Variability of species, Variability of populations in different ecosystems, Variability in relative abundance of species. Knowledge of biodiversity is essential for sustainable utilization of resources. Biological resources provide us: Nourishment, Clothing, House, Fuel, Medicine and Revenue. Biodiversity play a critical role in sustaining human populations across the globe. We depend on it for sustained food growth, for clean air and water and for medicine and shelter. It is no surprise then that ecosystem degradation threatens our most basic necessity – a healthy environment to live and thrive in. This is especially true of biodiversity hotspots, which house some of the largest diversity of species in the world and provide important life-support services to the people who live in and around them.
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3

Immunomodulatory Effects of Probiotics: An Update

Shilpa S Chapadgaonkar*, Kajal Singla, Abhinob Baruah DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i01.003

Abstract Probiotic microorganisms have generated a great interest in the scientific community to understand the complex mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects. Probiotic commensal organisms are recognized to be modulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. They work by activation of immune response and yet are able to suppress the over-inflammatory responses.The signalling mechanisms usually involve the innate pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors which recognize the microbe-associated molecular patterns leading to activation of immune signalling. Moreover, probiotic microorganisms also modulate the intestinal barrier function by inducing defensin production and regulating the immune signalling. Increasing evidence also suggests that induction of epithelial signalling by intestinal microbiota can modulate barrier functions, defensin production and regulate inflammatory signalling. Probiotics also act by activating the cell mediators of innate immunity such as dendritic cells, T effector cells and macrophages. The present review focuses on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics.
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4

An Overview of Tea, A Health Tonic and its Beneficial Impact on Human Health Worldwide

Babita Kumaria*, Hitesh Solanki, Humeraha Nazneen, Anoop Sharma, Lokesh Verma DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i01.004

Camellia sinensis commonly called “tea” is the second most extensively consumed beverage in the world, following water, and has a slightly cooling, astringent flavor. The drink is prepared from the evergreen perennial shrub called Camellia sinensis (L.). The tender leaves are processed to make a drink that gives people the crucial pep and stimulus necessary for doing mental and physical work. It is principally consumed as fermented tea or black tea. In addition to use as a beverage, tea leaves are consumed as vegetables, such as in the Burmese “leppet tea” and “meing tea” of Thailand which are consumed as semi-fermented or pickled tea. Also, tea has considerable therapeutic value and can cure many diseases, including cancer.
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5

Seed Biology: Breaking the Seed Dormancy and Testing Seed Viability

Ericson E. Coracero* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i01.005

Seed germination is an essential process in ensuring successful natural succession and planting activities. Factors affecting seed germination, namely, seed viability and dormancy, were tested. It was found that seed scarification was the best technique in breaking seed dormancy, wherein 38 out of 40 Acacia mangium wild. Seeds germinated. For seed viability, Zea mays L. was the most viable seeds wherein 40 kernels germinated out of 40 seeds tested using the most simple germination test.
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S.no Title and Authors Name
1

A comprehensive review on Embelia tsjeriam- cottam A.DC

Huda Nafeesa*, Sana Nafeesb, S. Nizamudeen DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i02.001

Embelia tsjeriam- cottam A.DC is found in most of the parts of south India. It is commonly named as false black pepper because it look a lot like black pepper and that’s why mostly used adulterant for black pepper. It belongs to the family Myrsinaceae, the commonly used medicinal plant in the name of vidang, in local it is called red vidang. But irony is, it is not the true plant of vidang, the true vidang is Embelia ribes Burm f. which is mentioned in ayurvedic manuscript being first identified by Susruta. Its fruit which is globosein shape and is used medicinally and possesses similar actions & chemical constituents of Embelia ribes Burm f. Embelin is the major alkaloid present in it with other chemical components like cardiac glycosides, phenols, flavonoids etc. Few studies have revealed that it possess several pharmacological activities such Antidiabetic, anti-tubercular, antibacterial, anti-inflammatoryetc. Many pharmacognostical and pharmacological studies have been done on Embelia ribes Burm f. however only few studies has been done on Embelia tsjeriam cottam.,this review, is taken over with an attempt to explore the pharmacognosy with pharmacological profile of Embelia tsjeriam- cottam A.DC.
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2

Forest Cuttings and its Impact on Vegetationin the Temperate Forests of Kashmir Himalaya

Shiekh Marifatul Haqa*, Hazim Abdulqader Shakir DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i02.002

In the present scenario of global warming and its control, forests have attracted particular interest since they play an essential role in sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. The influence of forest cutting on soil properties were studied in temperate forest of Kashmir Himalaya. On the basis of the intensity of disturbance, two differently disturbed forest sites, High-Disturbed (HD) and Low-Disturbed (LD) sites were selected for sampling. To calculate the beta diversity between disturbed and undisturbed plots of the studied forest site beta part package, R version 3.5.1 was used. The results of the beta diversity showed significant difference in species composition (p = 0.009) between the sites. Highest Fisher’s alpha value and Margalefvalue (10.05; 5.61) was observed in LD sites and lowest value (8.38; 4.82) in HD sites, respectively. The results can help to stake holders to develop appropriate decisions for the management of these degraded forests sites for their sustainable development.
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3

Effect of Kinetin Concentration on Physiological Growth Parameters of Triticum Aestivum

Charu Rajpala, Vishal Sharmaa, Pushpa C Tomara* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i02.003

India has different biotic and abiotic stresses which initiate the decrease in the wheat production every year and due to this reason it is not accessible to majority of the population. Triticum aestivum (wheat) is known for its nutrient value and is grown on large scale in our country. It is declared as the healthiest diet compared to any other source. To improve the crop production of the wheat, Kinetin has been used by many researchers. Kinetin is a plant growth hormone isolated earlier by the scientists to promote the cell division and to encourage comparable growth. So, a low cost experiment was done in the plant tissue culture lab to cultivate the seeds in-vitro. These seeds were then treated with the various concentration of kinetin (0mg/l, 50mg/l, 100mg/l, and 150mg/l) and kept in the plant growth chamber to evaluate the expansion of seeds. These seeds were kept under observation for 7 days and then sub-cultured with MS- media representing that kinetinimproves crop salt tolerance; improvise heavy metal stress, and a plant phytohormone that further activates antioxidant defense system. Present study supports in-vitro growth of Triticumaestivumwith additional improved physical conditions. Cost effective and top quality seeds can be obtained in minimum time through this technique.
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4

Efficacy of Unani Medicine in the Management of Female Infertility- a case study

Sameena Begum*, Q. N. Qhuddsia DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i02.004

INTRODUCTION: Uqr (infertility) is defined as a failure to conceive within one or more years of regular unprotected coitus. It is estimated that nearly 10-15% of couples are infertile in India. Among them, the male is directly responsible in about 30-40%, the female in about 40-55% and both are responsible in about 10% cases. The remaining 10% is unexplained. Some of the lifestyle factors leading to infertility are increasing marital age, rising alcohol and tobacco consumption and obesity, smoking, and some clinical factors like ovarian and tubal dysfunction, vaginal and cervical factors, biochemical changes in cervical secretions, and the presence of anti-sperm antibody which leads to cervical hostility may be implicated as an immunological factor of infertility. In classical text books of unani, infertility is defined as Uqr (banjhpan), and it occurs due to congenital defect of the uterus & ovaries, furbahi (obesity), su’i mizaj-e-Rahem, su’I mizaj-e-madde manwia, fasad e mani, which leads to faulty production of ovum as well as difficulty in conception. According to Unani physicians, the basic principle of Unani treatment is the correction of abnormal temperament, use of mukhawwi e rahem advia. Some effective unani drugs help induce ovulation such as; asgand, tukhm e shivlingi, tukhm e shambhalu,inderjushireen, Zafran, burada e dandaane feel, resha e bargad, joz bua etc. Phittakri biriyan, roghan e chambeli and poste anaar are also helpful as local applicants. Some compound unani formulations are habbe hamal, majune moine hamal ambari, dawa-ul-misk motadil, majune suparipak, etc. are also help in conception. This case study intends to give knowledge of the efficacy of Unani formulation in the management of female infertility & embracing parenthood naturally & safely without any complication & side effects. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of Unani medicine in the management of female infertility. METHODOLOGY: A single clinical case study of infertility was conducted in the Department of Amraz e Niswan wa Qabalat Govt Nizamia Tibbi College and Hospital, Hyderabad. An infertile couple was selected, Age of the patient was 26 years old and anxious to conceive, and willing to participate in the study. Treatment was planned to give Oral unani compound medicine like Habbe Hamal, Majoone Moine Hamal, and Dawaul Misk Motadil. Which are Muqavvi Rahem and muallid e mani as well as help in conception and some unani formulation was made which consists of Roghan e chambeli, zafran, Sufoof e inderjau Shireen which are used as a humool for 5 days. RESULT: the patient has shown a good response with unani medicine and conceived within 2 months of treatment without any side effects. CONCLUSION: The study proved the efficacy of unani medicine in managing female infertility without any side effects.
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5

To study about the Taxonomic, Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value in Rice bean (Vigna umbellate)

Priyanka Saini, Deepti Jamwal, Charu Rajpal and Pushpa C. Tomar* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i02.005

Rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi and Ohashi) is a tropical to temperate grain legume primarily grown for food, especially in Asia. Rice bean seeds and vegetative parts are also used for fodder. Rice bean is a multipurpose legume, sometimes considered as neglected and underutilized. However, though less important than cowpea, adzuki bean and mung bean, rice bean is a locally important contributor to human nutrition in parts of India and South-East Asia. All parts of the rice bean plant are edible and used in culinary preparations. The dry seeds can be boiled and eaten with rice or they can replace rice in stews or soups. In Madagascar, they are ground to make nutritive flour included in the food for children. Unlike other pulses, rice beans are not easily processed into dhal, due to their fibrous mucilage that prevents hulling and separation of the cotyledons. Young pods, leaves and sprouted seeds are boiled and eaten as vegetables. Young pods are sometimes eaten raw. Rice bean is useful for livestock feeding. The vegetative parts can be fed fresh or made into hay and the seeds are used as fodder. The rice bean straw, the crop residue of the seed harvest, includes the stems, leafy portions, empty pods, and some seeds. Before feeding, the woody portions and soiled or mildewed parts of the straw should be removed. In the marginal hills of Indian, farmers consider rice bean both as a grain and fodder legume and look for dual-purpose landraces. Rice bean is grown for green manure, as a cover crop, and used as a living fence or biological barrier.
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S.no Title and Authors Name
1

Anti-Carcinogenic Factors of Water Melon Seed and Seed Oil: A Review

Meethu*, Humeraha Nazneen, Sana Fatima, Javid Ahmad Malik DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i03.001

The seeds of watermelon are generally considered as agro-waste and are thrown away out in spite of its high nutritional profile and therapeutic values. Watermelons seed is and unutilized by of oil contain essential fatty acids, vitamin-E, and minerals and are rich in anti-oxidants. Since watermelon seed contains high- quality proteins, the seed meal can be used as non- conventional protein source and functional ingredients during food formulations. watermelon seeds have beneficial health impact such as growth, cardio protective effect, anti-diabetic effect, anti-obesity, anti- arthritic effect and as well as anti-ulcerogenic effect. Adequate doses of watermelon seed extracts can increase sperm count. Watermelon seed oil and watermelon seed incorporated food products are available in many countries. There is an ample scope of research to explore the bioactive ingredients responsible for the positive health benefits of these and the use of value-added products from watermelon seeds.
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2

Physio-Morphological Characteristics in Linseed (Linum Usitatissimum L.) Induced by Hydrazine Hydrate

Sadaf Jafri, Roshan Jahan*, Samiullah Khan DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i03.002

One of the proven facts of genetics is induced mutagenesis the most successful, safe and low cost approach for producing the different varieties of a crop species. In the present scenario linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) a medicinally as well as economically important plant of the family Linaceae, was selected for the present study for the enhancement of genetic variability by using induced mutagenesis technique. Healthy seeds of two linseed varieties were treated with different doses of hydrazine hydrate (HZ) for a short duration of six hours. The findings recorded were correlated with qualitative and quantitative traits to assess mutagenic potency and to produce desirable genetic variation in selected crop plant. The bio-physiological study showed a steady reduction in the germination percentage with the increasing doses of mutagens. The total chlorophyll content showed a significant negative shift from control to all treatment in both the varieties. The doses of hydrazine hydrate (0.2% and 0.3%) were found to be the most potent for the induction of the genetic variability in both the varieties. The lower and moderate doses were found to be applicable for the inducing the mutation in the agro-economical traits of linseed. In quantitative characters, lower biological destruction was evaluated with a high percentage of variance.
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3

A Prospective Cross Sectional Study on Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns among Admitted Patients in a Teritary Care Hospital, Bangalore

Rashi L, Sushma Muchukota, Karishma Parveen, Dinesh M. C, Hamin Jahan, Vinutha Yadav, Priyanka Dey, Yousuf Ahmed DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i03.003

Antibiotics are potent medicines that fight next to certain infections also can prevent further infections and save lives when used properly in therapeutic dose. They both prevent bacteria from reproducing and destroy them. Antibiotics are one of the most significant discoveries in the field of medicine. The purpose of the current study was to know the prescribing pattern of antibiotics in admitted patients in a tertiary care hospital in Bangalore. The objective of the study was to figure out the average number of antibiotics prescribed per prescription to identify the indication for which the antibiotics were frequently prescribed. There was A Cross sectional, observational study with 228 patients who were prescribed antibiotics, were included in this research with age between 15 to more than 65 years. The study was carried out for period of 6 months inpatient department from August 2019 to January 2020. The study reveals that out of 228 patients with antibiotics in the prescription is 81% , 49% of them are prescribed with at least one antibiotic and distribution of Broad spectrum antibiotics accounted for 61% and most of antibiotics prescribed are in 23% general medicine department and commonly given route is oral 60% i.e., cephalosporins 26% and penicillin’s 19.6%. This study concluded that appropriate and sustainable interventions should be implemented that will ease the threat of antibiotic resistance. This emphasizes the need to provide training about antibiotic prescription patterns for rational use and avoid Polypharmacy across healthcare settings to improve patient care development and provide better quality of life.
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4

To study the Taxonomic and Nutritional Composition in Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek)

Lokesh Verma and Pushpa C. Tomar* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i03.004

The mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) is a legume cultivated for its edible seeds and sprouts across Asia. There are three subgroups of Vigna radiata: one is developed (Vigna radiata subsp. radiata), and two are wild (Vigna radiata subsp. sublobata and Vigna radiata subsp. glabra). The mung bean plant is an annual, erect or semi-erect, reaching a height of 0.15-1.25 m. It is slightly hairy with a well-developed root system. Wild types tend to be prostrate, while cultivated varieties are more erect. The stems are many-branched, sometimes twining at the tips. The leaves are alternate, trifoliolate with elliptical to ovate leaflets, 5-18 cm long x 3-15 cm broad. The flowers (4-30) are papilionaceous, pale yellow, or greenish. The pods are long, cylindrical, hairy, and pending. They contain 7 to 20 tiny, ellipsoid or cube-shaped seeds. The seeds are variable in color; they are usually green and yellow, olive, brown, purplish brown or black, mottled and ridged. Seed colors and the presence or absence of a rough layer are used to distinguish different types of mungbean. Several mungbean products are helpful for livestock feeding; Mungbeans, raw or processed, and split or weathered seeds. By-products of mungbean processing: mungbean bran (called chuni in India), which is the by-product of dehulling for making dhal, and the by-product of the manufacture of mungbean vermicelli. Mungbean is sometimes grown for fodder as hay, straw, or silage. It is particularly valued as early forage as it outcompetes other summer growing legumes such as cowpea or velvet bean in their early stages. The mungbean plant makes valuable green manure and can be used as a cover crop.
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5

Applications of Nanomaterial in Medicine and Wound Healing

Anoop Sharma, Lokesh Verma, Vishal Sharma, Charu Rajpal* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i03.005

Nanomaterial can be defined as the “material with any external dimension in the nanoscale or having internal structure or surface structure in the nanoscale”, with nanoscale defined as the “length range approximately from 1 nm to 100 nm”. Over a period of time a number of innovative therapies have been emerged in the field of wound healing. Nanostructured systems have been used to improve wound healing at different stages. The drug itself may be formulated at a nanoscale such that it can function as its own “carrier” or nanomaterials may be used as drug delivery vehicles. If we observe the latest advancements on innovative nano-based organic and inorganic materials we find that these novel drug delivery systems possess high stability, large surface area and tunable compositions and have demonstrated their wound-healing properties using in vitro and in vivo models. The nanotechnology-based platforms are an exciting emerging field with many applications on wound healing in the last decade. Numerous investigators have designed several inorganic and metal nanoparticles including magnetic, silica silver, nano graphene oxide scaffolds, copper and gold terbium oxide, cerium and titanium dioxide, etc. and demonstrated their wound healing properties. Hence nanomaterials play a vital role in tackling with the wound healing process tremendously.
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S.no Title and Authors Name
1

Effect of Heavy Metals on Biochemical Parameters in Spinacea Oleracea L.

Rajanelly Sangameshwar*, Chinna Venkateshwar, J. Avinash DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i04.001

The study of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, and Ni) effect on biochemical parameters in Spinacea oleracea L. (Palak). Spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) is an edible leafy vegetable plant in the family Amaranthaceae, spinach is an annual plant (sometimes biennial), Spinach shows the growth up to 30cm in tall. It can survive over winter and in temperate regions also. The leaves Spinach are alternate, ovate to triangular, and mostly variable in size that is about 2–12 cm long and 1–10 cm in broad, the larger leaves on the base of the plant and small leaves on the higher stem. Common spinach, S. oleracea, considered as long in the family Chenopodiaceae, but in 2003, that was merged into the family Amaranthaceae in the order Caryophyllales, spinach with raw contains 91% water, 4% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and it also contains negligible fat. Spinach is rich in carotenoids, body can convert it into vitamin-A. The present research study was conducted to know the toxicity nature of heavy metals in Spinacea oleracea L. leaf and its remediation. Pot culture experiments were conducted with three treatments till productivity levels at Greenhouse of Botanical Garden, Department of Botany, Osmania University, Hyderabad. The three treatments consist of Treatment I control without any addition of heavy metals to the soil, Treatment II heavy metals spiked into the soil and Treatment. III, 1 % of calcium hydroxide added along with heavy metals to the soil. The results showed when compared to treatment I and III the high concentrations of heavy metals (Ni, Cd and Cr) are found in leaf of Spinacea oleracea L. in (Treatment II). In addition, the plants grown in treatment III with 1% Calcium hydroxide treated soil, reversed the growth suppression and inhibited the heavy metal toxicity in plants as evidenced by reduced heavy metal concentration in leaf. The study concludes that leafy vegetable Spinacea oleracea L. affected with heavy metals can be treated by using calcium hydroxide.
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2

Impact of Social Media on Society

Swetalina Das*, Pranati Mishra, Babita kumari, Hitesh A. Solanki DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i04.002

Now-a-days social media plays a vital role in our lives. Which is a computer based technologies that provide facilities like sharing of information, ideas, pictures, career interest by virtual medium. It is a digital tool for quick access to any content at any time. For individuals social media is medium to connect with their friends and families. People using social media for career opportunities and also find people across the Globe. The power of social media is to share information to any one on the world simultaneously with many people. Social media have many technologies based activities such as photo sharing, blogging, social networks, video sharing and much more. Globally there are 3.80 billion social media users. Social media plays a key role in on our attitudes and behaviour which is regarded as an important contributor to the socialization process.
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3

Standardization of Unani Medicines-Parameters and Exigency: A Review

Mohd Rafi Thoker*, Mir Yousuf Ali, Zaibunnissa Begum, Syed Khalid Murtaza DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i04.003

The use of unani medicines is one of the oldest forms of healthcare known to humanity and has been used in all cultures throughout history. Unani medicines derived from plants are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical diseases .Our dependence on medicinal plants has in no way been minimized by the use of modern system of synthetic drugs. Demand for medicinal plant is increasing in both developing and developed countries due to growing recognition of natural products, being non-narcotic, having no or minimal side-effects, easily available at affordable cost and sometimes the only source of health care available to the poor. A marked growth in the worldwide phytotherapeutic market has occurred over the last 25 years and has thus attracted the interest of most large pharmaceutical companies to manufacture herbal preparations. However in this techno-sawy era, various challenges are encountered with herbal medicines including unani medicines like assessment of safety and efficacy of quality control, safety monitoring, regulatory status, etc. The exigency of standardization of Unani medicine has arisen to combat these challenges. Thus standardization of Unani medicines (both single and compound) has become rudimentary. Standardization of a drug means confirmation of its identity, quality and purity throughout all phases of its cycle i.e. its preparation, shelf life, storage and uses by various parameters. WHO has given various parameters for the process of standardization and evaluation of herbal drugs? These include organoleptic, botanical, physical, chemical and biological. These parameters provide requirements for the development of Unani medicine for its identification, purity, safety and efficacy and are crucial for preparation of accurate and potent formulation to follow GMP and GLP standards as per various regulatory authorities varying in different countries across the globe.
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4

Zaghtuddam Qawi (Hypertension) Concepts and Its Management in Unani System of Medicine

Fida Febin*, Noora Fathima, Shahanas. K, Shehanas DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i04.004

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent conditions seen worldwide. An estimated 1.13 billion people worldwide have hypertension. It can lead to severe health complications and increases the risk of heart diseases, stroke as well as death in some cases. Hypertension accounts for 6% of death worldwide. Hypertension is generally classified into 2; namely primary hypertension and secondary hypertension. Primary or essential hypertension in which the cause of hypertension is unknown. And about 80- 95% patients of hypertension is included in this category. Whereas, secondary hypertension in which the blood pressure is due to the diseases of kidney, endocrine or some other organs and this comprises about 5-20% of cases of hypertension. Unani physicians well described hypertension in the context of imtila. They were aware of zaghtae- damvi (blood pressure) and said that hypertension occur due to su’e-mizajdamvi. They described most of the manifestations of hypertension such as headache, vertigo, epistaxis, palpitation due to imtila. Physicians also believed that hypertension is a manifestation of yabusat-e-mizaj (dryness) which is a main cause of atherosclerosis.
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5

Efficacy of Polyherbal Unani Formulation in ehtebas-e-haiz [amenorrhoea]-a Randomised Single Blind Study

Shaik Akeefa Nousheen* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i04.005

Introduction: Amenorrhoea denotes absence of menstruation. Primary amenorrhoea refers to failure of onset of menstruation beyond the age of 16 years regardless development of secondary sexual characters. Secondary amenorrhoea refers to failure to occurrence of menstruation for 6 months or longer in women who have previously menstruated Primary amenorrhoea is rare about 0.3%, whereas secondary amenorrhoea is about 30-40%.According to Shaik ur Rayees Bu Ali Sena in his book “Al Qanoon Fit Tibb” amenorrhoea is cessation of menstrual flow which may be due to uterine pathology or due to altered temperament of the body.Hk Ashrafuddin Ismail Jurjani in his book Zaqir-e-Qarzam Shahi stated that any imbalance in humours(khilt) will lead to change in temperament of body which causes amenorrhoea.He stated that the hot temperament leads to dryness and constriction of the blood vessels and cold temperament causes increase in the viscosity of the blood which leads to ehtebas e haiz. Objective: To see the efficacy of unani formulation in patients with ehtebas-e-haiz. Methodology: Study was conducted in Dept of Amraze Niswan at Govt Nizamia Tibbi College and hospital, Hyderabad. 100 patients of reproductive were selected. An inclusion criterion includes women of age group 11-40 years with delayed peiods for 2-6 months. Exclusion criteria were pregnant women, menopause, and women with congenital anomalies, systemic disease and genetic disorders. A polyherbal unani formulation was made which consist of single drugs in the form of joshanda(tukhme karafs, aneesun, badiyan, pudina khushk, mishktaramsheey, abhal, parsiaoshaan),Qurs (Murmaki, pudina khushk, barge sadab, mishktaramsheey, majeeth, heeng, jaosheer, sakbeenj, each 3 gms) and humool (Zafraan,Ood-e-shireen, Nagarmotha) was given for 10 days for three consecutive cycles. Results: Primary outcome was withdrawal bleeding which was seen in 63 patients out of 100 patients and secondary outcome was regularisation of cycle which was seen in 37 patients in first cycle. Conclusion: The study proved efficacy of unani formulation with good results without any side effects. The formulation can also be used as an alternate to the OCP which are used for withdrawal in conventional medicine.
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1

Education Planning in Post Covid-19 Scenario

Zeenathfar Azmi Syed, Akhtar Rasool* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i05.001

Sociologically speaking, ‘Education’ is one of the social institutions, if this prime institution fails to progress in society then it will harm the other social institutions like Economy, Polity, and Religion, etc. As we all are aware that educational institutions can play the greater “Role of Constructive and De-Constructive” because among all the social institutions ‘Education’ plays a constructive role, if this institution fails then it is the death knell to the society then the de-construction of other institutions takes rapidly. So the time is ripe for an educational institution to play an active scientific role to fight against the deadly existing pandemic COVID – 19 in the World. Educational institutions have to wake up to this alarming pandemic and reforms to be brought into action immediately for a brighter future. “Education is the key to unlock the doors of ignorance”.
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2

An Overview of Corona Virus Disease - Review

Zaryab Shafi* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i05.002

The investigation of this review article is based on a recently outbreak of a pandemic disease which has posed a major health hazards, the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a infection which is more commonly referred to as COVID-19. This infectious disease is emerging and reducing human population across the globe. Common symptoms noted among human for this infection include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Muscle pain, sputum production, and sore throat are less common symptoms. The infection is transmitted from one human to others by respiratory droplets, often produced during coughing and sneezing. It takes 2–14 days to develop symptoms from the day of exposure. The person who has been infected by the virus need to get himself isolated. Several methods to prevent from this virus include hand washing, maintaining distance from other people, use of sanitizer frequently. To avoid contamination person should wear face mask in general public. This infection has its acute effect on people with old age group or patient having low immunity. In most cases person infected with this virus need to be admitted to intensive care unit for intensive care and supportive organ treatment.
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3

Empowering Green Economy in Post COVID 19 World Order

Razafimamonjy Faniriantsoa Rindranirina* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i05.003

The major of more countries met some crisis especially economy crisis, through this pandemic (COVID-19). That provoke the rising of unemployment that lead the failure of some company. Green economy is the best solution to make economy growing up and also fulfill sustainable development with reducing environment crisis and ecological scarcities. In simple words, green economy mean’s low carbon, resource efficiency and socially inclusive. United Nation Environmental Program (UNEP) was created this program to promote a development and to provide biodiversity conservation. Natures can deliver some sources of benefit for poor people lives and depend o natural resources. (That is the one reason that UNEP founded GREEN ECONOMY) Green economy contains 4 main subfields: forestry, sustainable agricultures, renewable energies, transportation and infrastructures. These work together for bring a high quality of life and emergency conservation. Government plays an important role to improve this main sector (green economy). They need to invest more on that to increase the number of the people contributed this sector. Inside young people and students to focus theirs research on this main field for example create something related by the 4 subfields (forestry, sustainable agricultures, clean energies, transportation and infrastructures to empower green economy.
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Expression of Antibiosis Resistance in Sorghum Composites to stem borer, Chilo partellus swinhoe Under Greenhouse consitions

Chand Asaf* and S. Arivudainambi DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i05.004

The antibiosis components of resistance to the stemborer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) was studied on three different sorghum composites under greenhouse conditions. Significant differences were stant composites and susceptible check in regards to larval survival, larvalobserved between the resi duration, pupal mass, and percentage pupation and adult emergence. It has been concluded that high mortality of larvae on resistant composites is due to antibiosis and hence the possibility of selection of parents to breed should be based on the information to increase the levels and diversify the bases of resistance to C. partellus in sorghum
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A Comprehensive Review on Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and its Management in Unani System of Medicine

Hanna Zainab, Naseeha Jasin. K*

Virtually every woman will suffer a gynaecological condition at some point in her life. It can be devastating or minor as well. Polycystic ovarian syndrome [PCOS] is to be most common endocrine disorder found in women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone [androgen] levels, weight gain, acne, difficulties in pregnancy. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid [follicles] and fail to regularly release eggs. The latest estimation of W.H.O indicates polycystic ovarian disease has affected 116 million women [3.4%] worldwide. Treatment of PCOS is primarily targeted to correct the biochemical abnormalities. Weight reduction in obese person is the first line of treatment 2-5% reduction in weight improves the metabolic syndrome and reproductive function. Exercise is found beneficial. Unani physicians described the PCOS under the headings of qillate tams, ehthebase tams, and uqr.uqr [infertility] is an advanced stage. Jalinoos says women become amenorrheic if her mizaj transformed towards masculinity and develops the features like male pattern hair growth, hoarseness of voice etc. Curative measures are elimination of existing causes [Correction of Metabolism]/Islahe Jigar, Correction of Sue Mizaj Barid, following Asbabe Sitta Zarooriyah, Ilaj Bit Tadbeer
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Quantum Computing: Significant Challenge and it’s to-be

Anju Khandelwal*, Avanish Kumar DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i05.006

In recent years, quantum computing research has expanded in both the public and private sectors. Quantum computing is the use of computation execution to perform quantum- mechanical phenomena such as superposition and complex computation. Quantum computing began in the 1980s. Since a quantum computer is ultimately the interface between users, data, and networks, tasks that are at the forefront of traditional computing - a quantum computer may be more profitable for performing different tasks. In this paper, the applications, uses and future challenges of Quantum Computing are discussed in detail.
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Impact of Open Source Software in Research

Anju Khandelwal*, Avanish Kumar DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i05.007

The software industry is growing very fast and often promises new development. It initially promises to change the market, but ultimately fails to remain as it is. Open source software (OSS) is software whose source code is published openly, usually available at no charge, and often developed by voluntary efforts. Open-source software is everywhere whether specifically in the form of applications nurtured by dedicated users or as a built-in digital platform used by millions of people. This type of software is developed, maintained and expanded both within and outside the private sector, through contributions from businesses, universities, government research institutes, non-profits, and people. The open source model presents a new paradigm for financing software in the interest of communities (e.g. health and education) also. It can be said that such projects are developing in some countries and the government is focusing on running pilot projects to test the feasibility of OSS approach for such software. OSS has also gained prominence in some specific segments of the software infrastructure market by beginning to take a significant share and a particular example of this is that Linux has been the fastest growing server operating system since 1998. In addition, open-source software (OSS) has attracted the attention of researchers as well as practitioners in recent years. Keeping this objective in mind, this paper has done a comparative study of the characteristics of OSS and CSS, reason of its use by researchers, and the study of the major and particularly useful OSS.
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Water Quality Determination and Classification Based on Physio-Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Kaam Spring, Zliten, Libya

Hosam Ali Aldhawi Ashokri*, Fawzi Salem Rajab Ashorri DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i05.008

The aim of this study is to determine and to classify the water quality of Kaam Spring based on physio-chemical and biological Characteristics. A total number of 10 samples were collected in September of 2019. Tests have included physio-chemical parameters: (DO, BOD, COD, TDS, EC, pH, Salinity, Temperature, Turbidity, NH3ˉ N, PO₄³⁻, Velocity, Clˉ, Fˉ, SO₄ˉ, HCO3 ˉ, NO3ˉ, Na+, K+, Mg++, and Ca+) and heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Over and above, one biological parameter (Testing of Coliforms) was achieved. Water quality was determined by comparing results with the Libyan Standards and the international parameter limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of drinking water and classified according to the Water Quality Index (WQI). Results have revealed that the concentrations of COD for all points were extremely higher than the permissible limits with the highest concentration of 4235 mg/L recorded in point 4. Electrical Conductivity (EC) values were also slightly higher than the desirable limits, which are likely due to the contact between spring and seawater. The turbidity index was higher than the permissible limits due to anthropogenic activities taking place. Velocity values were almost zero in all sampling points making the spring stagnant. Heavy metals of As and Pb have shown high concentration meaning that the spring is exposed to industrial waste. Testing of coliforms has shown positive readings; indicating that water is contaminated with feces while all other parameters measured were within the acceptable levels. WQI calculations revealed that the spring has a moderate quality of water and extensive treatment is required.
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A Comprehensive Study of Energy Efficient Saving Task Consolidation Algorithm for Cloud Computing

Lopamudra Das*, Satyaprakash Sahoo, Pranati Mishra, Parimita Mohanty, Babita Kumari DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i05.009

The powersaving in a cloud technology surrounding is a multifaceted challenge, which can directly reduce the in use costs. Task consolidation is a technique to raise resource usage. However, the greatest use of sources does not implies that there is convenient utilization of power and some resources which are unused resources also consumes significant amount of energy. Recent studies show that the power consumption of unused resources is 1 to 19%. Therefore, the idle resources are allotted with some task to make completely effective use of the idle period so that there will be overall minimum energy consumption.The advancement of technologies like software applications and system gadgethavebuild cloud technology a desired computing standard. Acquaintance procedure of managing are needed to link them together and build these resources use in the best possible way at various scales. So, to lower the power consumption of data centre. The general purpose to minimize the cost of datacentre Thus the procedure has inspired the goal to keep a brink level for CPUS with greater levels of usage for energy saving. If there is a greater CPU utilization that doesn’t equivalent to energy efficiency within that system.Power consumption is determined by hardware effectiveness. It is also dependant on the effectiveness of application running in the system and dependant on the resource saving system used on the infrastructure. Cloud computing can minimize labour costs, IT capital costs and increase productivity. Cloud technology refers to framing, handling and retrieving the hardware and software resource remotely. The objective of study is to review on Cloud offer configuration, online data storage and application.
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Harnessing Fungal Lipase from Oil Contaminated Soil Fungi A Strategy Towards Waste to Wealth Conversion

Debosmita Sikdar*, Ivy Kanungoa, Monim Ul Islam

Globally, there is an increasing demand towards more eco-friendly, sustainable, and economic measures to deal with the growing problems of environmental issues. The aim of the work lies in selecting new techniques involving greener and cleaner procedures to utilize so called waste for deriving valuable products. The soil present in the oil mill areas have huge population of various microbes’, especially of fungal origin. These microbes being rich in lipase content due to their oil source origin, if cultured in laboratory and fermented and bio molecules extracted will give rise to production of lipase enzymes.Thus in this we isolated fungal colonies from this oil rich soil, cultured in laboratory, fermented them under various conditions to extract fungal enzyme i.e. lipase and then used it for further applications. Lipases are highly versatile and industrially important enzymes. Deriving the lipases from waste soil is the main attraction of this work and is a venture strategizing the “best from waste” approach.
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Biotechnology: A Bane for Healthcare

Charu Rajpal, Akansha Kanaujia, Pushpa C Tomar* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i06.001

Biotechnology has been round for an extended time. Our descendants are creating usage of biotechnology for several things like the baking of bread exploiting yeast. Biotechnology itself as a word suggests, is the “fusion of biology and technology” exploiting biological procedures for product research and development. Although useful, there are been considerations that Biotechnology is being stretched to the surroundings. It is not new that the atmosphere is being degraded. Therefore the query currently is: If Biotechnology is a friend or foe to Environment? Biotechnology possess positive impacts to the atmosphere ought to outweigh the negative impacts to be thought about a Friend to the environment. Contrariwise, if Biotechnology leads to additional damage than advantages to the environment it might be thought about a Foe. Whereas there are not any doubts that Biotechnology has some positives, nonetheless it is undoubtedly a foe to the environment and human health care
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Orientational Response of Trichogramma Japonicum to the Synomone from Rice Yellow Stem Borer-Damaged and Healthy Plants

S. Merrin Stephy* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i06.002

Olfactometer studies on the attraction of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum to the synomones extracted from the YSB-damaged rice plants revealed that attraction was maximum in the order of YSB-damaged TN 1, YSB-damaged TKM 6, healthy TN 1 and healthy TKM 6. YSB-damaged TN 1 attracted 21.50 numbers of adult egg parasitoid as compared to 17.50 numbers in YSB-damaged TKM 6. The GC-MS analysis of hydrocarbon profile showed that in healthy TKM 6, 16 hydrocarbon compounds were identified. The hydrocarbon compounds n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9,12,15-Octa decatrienoic acid and 9-Octadecenoic acid had more peak area. Eighteen hydrocarbon compounds have been identified in YSB-damaged TKM 6. Two compounds namely n-Hexadecanoic acid and 9,12-Octa decadienoic acid had more peak area. 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, Tetradecanal, Hexadecanoicacid, 9, 12-Octa decadienoic acid and Octadecanoic acid were present only in the YSB-damaged TKM 6 and not in healthy TKM 6. Three compounds Decane, 9,12,15-Octa decatrienoic acid and 9-Octadecenoic acid were detected only in healthy TKM 6 and not in YSB-damaged TKM 6. Twenty three hydrocarbon compounds were detected in the YSB-damaged TN 1. Two compounds n-Hexadecanoic acid and 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid had more peak area. Healthy TN 1 had 13 hydrocarbon compounds. Seven compounds viz., Decane, Dodecanoic acid, 9,12,15-Octa decatrienoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, Docosane and 2 methyl hexacosane were present in healthy TN 1 and not in YSB-damaged TN 1.
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Efficacy of Unani Formulation in qillat-e-rahel (oligohydramnios) - A case Series Study

M. Shamshad*, Q. N. Qhuddsia DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i06.002

Oligohydramnios is one of the complications of pregnancy and contribute significant to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Oligohydramnios defined as an extremely rare condition where the liquor amnii is deficient in amount to the extent of less than 200ml at term or AF volume less than expected Gestational age. 15-25% of cases of oligohydramnios are associated with the foetal anomalies. It is an abnormal condition occurs during pregnancy resulting from lack of amniotic fluid surrounds the body in uterus, amniotic value less than 500ml at 32-36 weeks of gestation. Amniotic fluid volume is depends on gestational age, therefore the best definition of oligohydramnios is AFI less than 5 percentile or AFI less than 5cms. It is typically diagnosed by ultra sound examination by amniotic fluid index. Sonographically, it is defined when the maximum vertical pocket of liquor is less than 2cms or when amniotic fluid index (AFI) is less than 5cms. Absence of any measurable pocket of amniotic fluid is defined as anhydramnios. AFI between 5 and 8 is termed as borderline AFI or borderline Oligohydramnios. In normal pregnancy amniotic fluid volume is usually increases to about 1 litre by 36 weeks and decreases thereafter only 100 to 200 ml or less in post term. Diminished fluid volume is termed as oligohydramnios.
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Alzheimer’s disease and its Management in Unani System of Medicine

Ayisha Niba. M, Musthameela Ibna Musthafa* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i06.004

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia; it is a syndrome in which there is deterioration in thinking, memory, behavior and the ability to perform everyday activities. Brain cell connections and the cells themselves degenerate and die which eventually destroy the memory and other important mental functions. According to WHO, 50 million people around the world have dementia and there are nearly 10 million new cases every year. Genetic factors play an important role and about 15% of cases are familial age is the strongest risk factor. In the Unani system of medicine there is no direct reference to this disorder but Alzheimer’s disease is almost associated with Nisyan or fasad-e-takhayyu’l or dimag ki kharabi. Etiology according to unani system of medicine is that it is due to viscid phlegm (Balgam Ghaleez) and excess moistness (Rutoobath) in brain.Unani system of medicine is endeavoured with enormous single and compound drugs with least side effects which can enhance the condition. Unani drugs with actions like Muhaffizat, muslihaat, Muqqawiat,Moadilath and Munish-ehararath- e-ghariziya are preferred.
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A Comprehensive review on Sartan (Cancer)

Bareera C. K, Muhsina A*, Saliha DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v01i06.005

Unani system of medicine is the traditional art of healing recognized worldwide. Medicinal plants have been served through ages as a constant source of medicament for the treatment of variety of ailments. Cancer is considered as one of the fastest growing diseases with an estimated worldwide incidence of 10 million new cases per year. According to medical statistics, more than half of all cancer patients do not live 5 years. There have been reports that one out of three persons dies of cancer today and by the year 2010 this figure is expected to be one in two. The knowledge of sartan (cancer) in Unani can be traced from ancient times (131-200 AD). According to Unani sartan is due to sauda (black bile) and saudavi madda which may develops into two types they are tabayee saudavi madda (normal) and ghair tabayee saudavi madda (abnormal) which further develops into warm e sulb (hard swelling). If tabayee saudavi madda burns it leads to sartan (kitabul umdah). Avicenna noted that cancer always occurs in hollow organs and that is why it is more frequent in women . When sauda becomes oxidized it acts as a precursor for the formation of sartan. In unani, sartan is classified into two, they are sartan- e-damvi or umoomi (blood cancer) and sartan-e-maqami or uzuwi (localized cancer) which is further divided into nine. Presence of hard mass on the parts of body with burning and pricking sensation is one of the common manifestations of sartan. The ilaj (treatment) of sartan is based on the modulators which are mentioned in the classical Unani literature, viz; ilaj -bil-ghizza (dietotherapy) like beans, cruciferous vegetables etc. ilaj-bil-dawa (pharmacotherapy) like joshanda (decoction) aftimoon, single drugs like shahitra, bisfaij etc... ilaj-bit- tadbeer (regimental therapy) like mushilat (purgation), hijamah (cupping), fasd (venesection) etc. and ilaj -bil-yad (surgery). The purpose of these methods is evacuation of ghair tabayee saudavi and normalization of those matters.
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Evaluation of the Heavy Metal in Soils of Kachwani Singaram Watershed of Musi River by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

Saleha Parveen*, Girisha Malhotra, Ali Ibrahim Zghair, Hazim Abdulqader Shaker

The main objective of research was to identify the heavy metal contaminated zones of soil and groundwater in the study area. Twenty five groundwater and ten soil samples collected from agriculture, residential and industrial areas and analysed by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer. Due to anthropogenic activities in Kachwani Singaram watershed have deteriorated water and soil quality during the last few years due to over population and industrial development. Soil samples were analysed for Heavy metals using XRF or X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. Analysed data were compared with the national and international standards and subjected to factor analysis for six variables to assess and characterize hydro chemical process. Comparison of results with groundwater water samples and soil samples with WHO or BIS or Canadian guidelines show that most of groundwater samples are heavily contaminated with Heavy metals and toxic trace elements like lead, chromium, nickel, barium, aluminium, boron, and selenium, which was quantified and presented in the form of spatial variation Diagrams prepared using ArcGIS. The results reveal that the contamination is mainly due to anthropogenic activities in and around the study area due to high population density and industrial setup in the region being very close to Hyderabad city.
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Compressive Review of Single Drugs used in Zeeq-un-nafas (Asthma)

P. P Rumaisa, Jumailath C. H, Sara M. L*, Azizur Rahman DOI: 10.46890/SL.2021.v02i01.002

Bronchial asthma is a serious global health problem. The latest estimation of WHO indicates that there were 417,918 deaths due to asthma at global level. Among India’s 1.31 billion people, about 6% of children and 2% of adult have asthma. It is a chronic disease characterized by episodes of acute bronchial constriction causing shortness of breath, cough, chest tightness, and rapid respiration and wheezing. Asthma is described with different names in Unani literature as Rabu, Zeeq un Nafas, and Dama. In Unani literature, asthma is caused by thick Phlegm which is adhered on the bronchial mucosa to develop narrowing of lumen. In Unani perspective, it is characterized by paroxysm of breathlessness with or without cough, cold and fever, sometimes sweating, low body temperature and increased respiratory rate. As we all know, medicinal plants are always a constant source of medicaments for the variety of disease; Unani scholars have also found effective treatment for the bronchial asthma with plants. Since asthma is explained as a disease with cold and moist temperament, the management of asthma is done by hot and dry drugs (ilaj bil zid). This review paper is an attempt to give knowledge about some single drugs used in Unani medicine to treat bronchial asthma.
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Role of Unani Medicine in the Management of Irqunnasa (Sciatica)

Salha Sulfiker*, Muhammed Anees M DOI: 10.46890/SL.2021.v02i01.003

Irqunnasa or Sciatica refers to the pain that radiates along the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve is formed by the combination of 5 nerves in the lumbar (lower) and sacral spine -L4, L5, S1, S2, and S3 region of spinal column and then go behind the buttocks and then deep down to the foot. These nerves are the largest nerves in the body which passes through both right and left leg. It is almost thick as the little finger. Mostly, the pain feels like sudden strong pain like that of electricity shock. Irqunnasa occurs due to any irritation like compression or injury in the sciatic nerve root. Irqunnasa is typically caused by common conditions including herniated disc, degenerative disc diseases and lumbar spinal stenosis. Neurologic pains of lower limb are one of the common manifestations of Irqunnasa. Its lifetime incidence varying from 13% to 40%. It is most common in people’s 40s and 50s. The corresponding annual incidence of an episode of sciatica ranges from 1% to 5%. In Unani system of medicine Irqunnasa is classified under Waja-ul-Mafasil (Joint Disorders). Ibn Sina (Avicenna) explained that Irqunnasa is caused by the accumulation of nerve fluid; mainly Khilt-e-balgam and Khilt-e-safra in the Asab-e-ariza (Sciatic nerve). The treatment is the evacuation of the morbid matters present in sciatic nerve by various ways like Ilaj-bil-dawa along with Ilaj-bil-ghiza and Ilaj-bit-tadbeer techniques like Hijama (Cupping), Zimad (Paste), Fasd (Venesection), Nutool (Irrigation), Dalak (Massage), Riyazat (Exercise), and Ishaal (Purgation).
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A Compendious Write-up on Unani Potent Drug: Bargad (Ficus benghalensis)

Syedath Aysha Mehar KPM, Husna Nellengal*, Hafiza Roshan, Majida Nazeem, Nihala Zakariyya DOI: 10.46890/SL.2021.v02i01.004

Traditional medicine is the oldest form of healthcare and is used in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. Bargad that is found in tropical areas is one of the medicinal herbs used in the Unani System of medicine for the treatment of many diseases. Bargad is a tree with a wide range of multi-dimensional chemical structures and pharmacological actions. It is known as Batinurduand and commonly known as the Banyan tree in English. Bargad is a big tree distributed all over India, with a height of 15-20m and wide in radius. Aerial roots are hanging from the tree, which gives support to its branches. It has a red, round fruits and white milky latex exudates from its bark. All parts of Bargad are used medicinally and it interacts differently on internal and external application. In Unani classical texts, the temperament of Bargad is mentioned as Barid Yabis and its actions are qabiz, muqawwi-e-aza-e-raeesa, mumassik. It’s all parts have a myriad of health benefits some of which are even unpredictable like bark is considered as a tonic and astringent, latex is used in piles, premature ejaculation etc. It is also used in various Unani compound formulations but is mainly used as a single drug. Bargad is also considered as sacred and is popularly used in folk and other traditional medicines. The various chemical constituents present in it include like aerial root contains phytosterolin, leaves contain triterpine and friedelin, the bark contains glucoside and many others. Although only a tiny fraction of existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities; it is found that it posses antidiabetic, antibacterial, antihelmintic, analgesic, anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory promoting properties. In a glance, this article contains the description, distribution, habitat, preservation, cultivation, medicinal properties, Unani aspect, aspect in other systems and researches done in Bargad, by making use of Unani classical texts and other sources available to us.
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A Comprehensive Review: On Recent Outbreak of Coronavirus in the Light of Unani Medicine and Veterinary Science

Zainab Zaki, Gulzar Ahmad

Three coronaviruses have caused catastrophic outbreaks of pneumonia in humans since early 21st century. The latest Covid-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) is the third zoonotic origin coronavirus outbreak to occur in the current century that spread from one city in china to the whole world within 30 days. Corona virus is the re-emerging virus, which has spread in a very deadly way nowadays. It is now known that the SARS-CoV2 genome has a structural similarity of 96.2 per cent to a bat coronavirus (CoVRaTG13) and 79.5 per cent to SARS-CoV, respectively. Approximately 50-80 per cent of the virus transmission comes from asymptomatic carriers and speech droplets transmission is considered to be a major mode of disease transmission. Unani and Veterinary services should work together to exchange information and conduct a risk assessment using a One Health approach when a person who is infected with SARSCoV2 reports is in touch with their pets or animals. Before the era of chemical air purifiers, Unani physicians used medicinal herbs as decoction or distillate for spray or as fumigants to keep the air free from pollutants. Various unani herbs like vinegar and some aromatic drugs can kill infectious agents and should be used as fumigants during epidemics. Hand hygiene, food hygiene, avoid consumption of bushmeat are some veterinary’s preventive measures which help to control the infection during epidemic conditions.
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SARS-CoV-2 continued Evolution and Pathogenic Difference in Human Hosts

Mahima Sharma* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2021.v02i02.001

The epidemic covid 19 originated from Wuhan, China during December 2019 in and since then spread innot only in China but also throughout the world and raised a major international concern. With the continuous extensive transmission studies are evidencing for an amount of molecular differences among SARS-CoV-2 found at the originating site and other related regions globally covid 19,Genome sequencing has evidenced the presence of dissimilar strains in different regions. Severity of disease varies in countries where few regions are affected more than others virus. This evolving nature of the virus not only can affect its diagnostic methods but also manufacturing drugs or vaccine.
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A Review on a Potent Unani Drug THOOTH (MORUS ALBA)

Fathima Sahla AP* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2021.v02i02.002

Traditional system of medicine have been using thooth since ancient time with its various medicinal properties. Thooth is commonly known as mulberry in English. This small and medium sized tree’s native place is China, nowadays we can see it in various parts of the world. Temperament of tooth is garam wa thar with first degree. The main actions of thooth are daaf-e-amraz halq, mubarrid, muratthib-edimagh, mulayyin, mufattheh sudad, it’s also used for deedan e amaa. It’s very effective for the symptoms of covid19. The chemical constituents like poly phenols, flavonoids, sugar, anthocyanins, fatty acids, malic acid are seen in thooth. Studies on various therapeutic actions of thooth is undergoing like nephrotoxicity protective action, hypoglycemic protective action on ocular function, antidopaminergic effect etc. The main compound formulation of thooth is sharbath-e-thooth siyah. Through this review hope to convey the medicinal values of thooth according to unani system of medicine.
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Role of Helicobacter, An Emerging Zoonotic Pathogen in Gastrointestinal Diseases

Gulzar Ahmad*, Zainab Zaki, Farha, Sunaiba Manzar, MD Moiz Alam DOI: 10.46890/SL.2021.v02i02.003

Helicobacter is the organism widely spread in human and all known Helicobacters live in human and animal hosts especially H. pylori, where colonization occurs principally in the gastrointestinal tract and sometime responsible for serious illness such as gastritis, Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) and strongly associated with gastric carcinoma, MALT lymphoma. It is considered as a serious problem impairing in public health in both developing and developed countries because it colonises the gastric mucosa of about half of the world population. Although less often Non Helicobacter Pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) are also able to cause disease in humans. Helicobacter naturally infects many poultry birds, some rodent species as well as humans. Helicobacter is a zoonotic bacterium that has also been associated with certain enteric infection in humans. Helicobacter is of zoonotic importance and the animal host remains a natural reservoir for many species. And efforts for Helicobacter’s treatment is more difficult due to antibiotic resistance and patient compliance but there are various unani drugs of plants, animals and mineral origin which are being used for the treatment of Helicobacter’s infection. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive knowledge of zoonotic potential of Helicobacters.
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A Comprehensive Light Microscopic Study on Sargassum Tenerrimum, an Alginate Producing Plant (Fucales, Phaeophyta)

Babita Kumari*, Anoop Sharma, Pushpa C. Tomar, Hitesh Solanki DOI: 10.46890/SL.2021.v02i02.004

During early stages of regeneration, cells at the cut ends become mitotically active and undergone cell differentiation to produce some filamentous outgrowths. The fucoids show a high level of anatomical differentiation of the thallus into three zones; meristoderm, cortex and medulla. Interestingly, the tissue differentiation as a highly specialized adaptation and division of labor strategy. Anatomically, the thallus differentiated into meristoderm, cortex and medulla. However, the meristoderm is overarched by some extra cellular layers. This extra cellular layer periodically sloughed – off and the meristoderm cells plays in important role in the regeneration of tissue.
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A Review on Aromatherapy, Benefits, Indications and Drugs using on it

Hudha Ubaid*, Shahana Sherin, Muhammed Ajmal M, Muhammed Uvaise C K DOI: 10.46890/SL.2021.v02i02.005

Aromatherapy is a holistic treatment, utilizing essential oils extracted from flowers, spices, fruits, woods and leaves from aromatic plants for their esthetic, psychological and medicinal applications to create balance and harmony to the body, mind and spirit. Aroma therapy is one of the most ancient healing arts & traces its origin to 4500BC, when Egyptians used aromatic substances in medicines. The term Aromatherapy was coined by Prof. Gatte`Fosse, a French cosmetic chemist. According to classical unani texts Aromatherapy has been used for Ilaj-bit-tadbeer (regimental therapy) dating back to Hippocratian era, where they used aromatherapy for abzan (sitzbath) lakhlakha (inhalation), thabkheer (steaming), for different illness using essential oils for e.g. From leemoon, ajwain, anisoon, oodh and ustuqudoos. The inhaled aroma from “essential” oils is widely believed to enhance the rooh stimulating the functions of aza raisa. Essential oils can also be absorbed through the skin, where they travel through bloodstream and promotes whole-body healing. Aromatherapy activates areas in nose called olfactory receptors, which send messages through nervous system to brain. The oils may activate certain areas of brain, like limbic system, which plays a role in controlling emotions. They also have an impact on your hypothalamus, which may respond to the oil by creating a good feeling in brain. Its use ranges from pain relief, mood enhancement and increased cognitive function to treat asthma, insomnia, fatigue, depression, inflammation, alopecia, cancer, arthritis, erectile dysfunction, menstrual disorders, menopausal syndromes, etc. This paper mainly highlights the different use of aromatherapy, action of various drugs on body, and modes of application based on classical unani texts, modern findings and developments in aromatherapy.
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Climate Change and its Impact on Makran Coastal of Southwestern coast of Balochistan of Pakistan

Mohammad Zareef Baloch*

The study is aimed at the discussing climate change and its impact on Makran coastal belt. Climate change related issues are discussed in this paper. It is discussed what is climate change? and what are the impacts of Makran coastal region. It is examined thatClimate change is a global issue and its negative effects are being seen in Pakistan including different countries around the world.Devolved countries are shaping strategic to Tigger out the solutions of it. the countries Millions of people are likely to be affected by climate change in the next few years. Climate change is expected to have adverse impact on Makran coastal belt including Pakistan. In this paper also discussed that. Local communities in Makran are unware of being protected from climate changes effects.
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Climate-smart fisheries production in Pakistan: A policy brief and way forward for decision-makers

Amina Shahzadi*, Sweara Kainat, Sumbal Ammara DOI: 10.46890/SL.2021.v02i03.002

This study seeks to examine the contribution of fisheries to poverty reduction and food security, and portray the potential impacts of climate change on the already strained resources in Pakistan. Fish is a major source of food for the majority of poor and vulnerable communities in Pakistan. The sector also provides jobs to many men and women and is one of the most traded food commodities in the region. Fish trade supports economic growth in many developing countries in general and most in Pakistan, in particular by providing an important source of cash revenue to service international debt and importing food for domestic consumption, thus contributing to national food security and diversification of diets. However, the benefits gained from the sector are often overlooked in national economic planning. This study provides a review of the potential physical and biological impacts of climate change on fisheries by giving specific examples from Pakistan. It is clear that the higher the production level and per capita food supply from fishery products, the lower the prevalence of hunger. Nonetheless, the fisheries sector continues to lack sufficient attention by policymakers. It is recommended that increased and sustained investments in market development, fisheries governance, and provision of economic incentive mechanisms are crucial to minimize the potential impacts of climate change on fisheries and food security and increase the resilience of many poor fishers’ communities in Pakistan.
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Management of plastic and Non-plastic material in Today Generation

Madhurima Das, Pushpanjali Nishank, Pranati Mishra, and Babita Kumari DOI: 10.46890/SL.2021.v02i03.003

The waste hierarchy is described as a pyramid because the fundamental principle is to avoid waste generation should be encouraged by policies. The next or desired move is to explore new uses, i.e., reuse, for the waste produced. Material recovery and waste-to-energy follow this stage. The final intervention is dumping, without energy recycling, in landfills or by incineration. This last stage is the previous waste resort that has not been stopped, redirected, or retrieved. The waste hierarchy reflects the progression through the linear levels of the pyramid of waste management of a substance or content. For each commodity, the hierarchy reflects the later sections of the life cycle for each product. The objective of this paper was to review and to assist and develop our climate and to help minimize packaging waste and transition to the lifestyle of zero waste.
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Influence of Different Hydraulic Retention Time on Modified Septic Tank System for Faecal Sludge Treatment

Subinoy Biswas Nayan*, Quazi Hamidul Bari, Pronab Kumar Debnath and, Jobaer Ahmed Saju DOI: 10.46890/SL.2021.v02i03.004

The waste hierarchy is described as a pyramid because the fundamental principle is to avoid waste generation should be encouraged by policies. The next or desired move is to explore new uses, i.e., reuse, for the waste produced. Material recovery and waste-to-energy follow this stage. The final intervention is dumping, without energy recycling, in landfills or by incineration. This last stage is the previous waste resort that has not been stopped, redirected, or retrieved. The waste hierarchy reflects the progression through the linear levels of the pyramid of waste management of a substance or content. For each commodity, the hierarchy reflects the later sections of the life cycle for each product. The objective of this paper was to review and to assist and develop our climate and to help minimize packaging waste and transition to the lifestyle of zero waste.
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Review of Point of Care Device for Anemia Detection

Reeja S R and Nikhita A* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2021.v02i03.005

Our project is meant to support medical research within the detection of anemia through a point of care device. A disorder in which there aren’t enough healthy red blood cells in the blood. The absence of red cells or the presence of dysfunctional red blood corpuscle in the body causes it. As a result, oxygen supply to the body’s organs is decreased. It’s a condition characterized by light oxygen delivery to cells and tissues among the body and it affects roughly quite ten million cases p.a. in India. Causes of anemia are attributed to malnutrition, low glycoprotein production, nephrosis, and sorts of cancer. Current tests for anemia involve invasive blood sampling and expensive diagnostic procedures to provide results. The invention of a non-invasive portable hematocrit sensing element to help in anaemia diagnosis at the point of care has advanced anaemia identification and treatment. Using the variance of absorption of IR and red light of oxygenated Hb (HbO2) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) a portable sensing element was designed and created to see oxygen saturation – the foremost reliable technique of anemia detection.
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1

Effect of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil supplementation on advanced motility parameters and DNA integrity of human sperm

Modou M. Mbaye*, Bouchra El Khalfi, Achraf Zakaria, Mustafa Zakaria, Noureddine Louanjli and Abdelaziz Soukri DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v02i06001

Reduced sperm motility remains one of the most important causes of male infertility. Many reports have indicated that treatment of subnormal semen samples with specific agents (pentoxifylline, relaxin, prostaglandin E, diltiazem, etc.) before artificial insemination significantly improves potential fertilization of spermatozoa. In our previous work, it has been shown that the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus has interesting biological properties on the motility and vitality of human spermatozoa. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to verify the effect of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil supplementation on advanced motility parameters and DNA integrity of 25 semen samples from male volunteers diagnosed as asthenozoospermic. Our results showed that eucalyptus globulus essential oil, over an incubation period of 5 to 10 minutes of exposure at 37°C under 5% CO2, immensely significantly improved advanced motility parameters: curvilinear velocity (VLC), linear velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), and amplitude of movement (ALH), with the effect of increasing VCL decreasing linearity (LIN), mean line (STR), and mean oscillation (WOB). Eucalyptus globulus essential oil at 5 minutes had no significant effect on DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and chromatin decondensation index (SDI).
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2

Sensitivity of Amaranthus hybridus L. Physiological Parameters to Telfairia mosaic virus Infection

Mofunanya A. A. J.*, Ogar V. B., Bassey R. A., Akomaye F. A.4 and Damian A. O.

The sensitivity of Amaranthus hybridus physiological parameters to Telfairia mosaic virus infection was investigated. To achieve this, seeds of A. hybridus were obtained from plants monitored on the field for virus symptoms expression. The seeds were broadcasted on nursery beds, on germination seedlings were transplanted and inoculated with Telfairia mosaic virus. Sensitivity of physiological parameters was assessed by measuring effect of the virus on growth, yield, leaf nitrogen, relative water content and photosynthetic pigments at different stages of growth for 12 weeks after inoculation (WAI). Results revealed high sensitivity of growth and yield parameters of A. hybridus to TeMV infection with significant (P=0.05) reductions. Severe leaf size reduction of (58.8%), stem height (53.7%), number of primary shoot (50.8%) and number of leaves produced (69.9%), leaf fresh weight (56.9%), leaf dry weight (58.0%) at 12 WAI. Shoot fresh weight and root dry weight had reductions of 20.3% and 20.1% at 13 WAI. Shoot DW and root FW revealed less sensitivity to TeMV infection. The virus caused reduction in relative growth rate of (42.0%), net assimilation rate (45.5%) at 4 WAI and leaf area ratio (33.1%) at 12 WAI. Leaf nitrogen content decreased with plant age in both healthy and infected plants with highest decrease of 56.1% at 2 WAI and lowest decrease of 37.1% at 12 WAI. The virus caused reduction in relative water content of 40.0% at 12 WAI. Photosynthetic pigments of A. hybridus were highly sensitive to TeMV infection with reduction in chlorophyll a of (50.8%), chlorophyll b (22.3%), chlorophyll a + b (40.6%) ratio of chlorophyll a/b (36.5%) at 12 WAI and carotenoids (55.1%) at 12 WAI. Chlorophyll a was more sensitive to TeMV than chlorophyll b. The sensitivity of A. hybridus to TeMV disrupted physiological processes which affected growth and yield with resultant effect on low income earnings of growers.
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Technologies for Horticultural Development through Solar Drip irrigation to improve options for farmers for better production of Agriculture Crops

Himanshu Behera, Madhusmita Behera, Anuz Pravat Minz, Sadashib Rout, Pranati Mishra, and Babita Kumari* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v02i06003

The Suppliers of Solar drip irrigation system increasingly optimizing the whole system, including solar generator, pump, controller and accessories, plus the irrigation system. Additionally, suppliers now often provide technical support services to satisfy the needs of end users. Solar-powered irrigation has the potential to increase incomes dramatically, particularly for the most remote producers. Combining drip irrigation kits, newly affordable photovoltaic panels and off-the-shelf, 12-volt pumps can result in a cost-effective system for supplying water for irrigation. Solar-powered irrigation has the potential to increase incomes dramatically, particularly for the most remote producers. Another trend goes in the opposite direction: individual components – PV panels, standard irrigation pumps and available controllers – are offered on the market and integrators provide services to connect these components into one irrigation system.. Besides, solar drip irrigation has a great impact on agriculture can be a high-risk venture, particularly with changing rainfall patterns and high-value crops such as fruits and vegetables. Irrigated cropland is twice as productive as rainfed agriculture, but many farmers do not have access to irrigation infrastructure, including a nearby water source and power to move the water to and through their fields. Rain-fed agriculture can be a high-risk venture, particularly with changing rainfall patterns and high-value crops such as fruits and vegetables. Irrigated cropland is twice as productive as rain-fed agriculture but many farmers do not have access to irrigation infrastructure, including a nearby water source and power to move the water to and through their fields. Combining drip irrigation kits, newly affordable photovoltaic panels and off-the-shelf, 12-volt pumps can result in a cost-effective system for supplying water for irrigation. The objective of this study was to review a comprehensive study on future impact of solar drip irrigation
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A Short communication Study on Organic Farming as better livelihood in India and Worldwide

Babita Kumari*, Phalguni Deep, Biswabanta Bag, Bhagaban Nag, Bhubaneshwari Mallick, Rukmini Chatar, Chaitan Majhi, Sahadeb Dhibar, Satyabrata Suna, Duryodhan Adbong, Hitesh Solanki DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v02i06004

The term modern organic farming was symbolize in due response to environmental harm caused by the use of chemical and synthetic fertilizers. It has got numerous ecological benefits. The pest controls and biological fertilizers derived largely from animal and plant wastes and nitrogen-fixing cover crops. In due response to comparison with conventional agriculture, organic farming uses fewer pesticides, reduces soil erosion, decreases nitrate leaching into groundwater and surface water, and recycles animal wastes back into the farm. These benefits are counterbalanced by higher food costs for consumers and generally lower yields. The yields of organic crops have been found to be about 25 percent lower overall than conventionally grown crops, although this can vary considerably depending upon the type of crop. The objective of this study is to review the beneficial aspects of Organic farming worldwide.
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Epidemiological and Clinical Profile of Male Infertility at the IRIFIV Fertilization Center in Casablanca, Morocco, around 331 Cases

Amina Benzaouiya, Achraf Zakaria, Mustafa Zakaria, Sabri yassir, Abdelghani Mrini, Bouchra ElKhalfi, Abdelaziz Soukri, Modou Mamoune Mbaye* and Noureddine Louanjli DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v02i06004

Infertility is a reproductive system condition defined as pregnancy after at least 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Male infertility affects 10-15% of men of childbearing age and is associated with more than 1% of infertility cases, regardless of female involvement. The causes of male infertility are diverse and difficult to classify because they are sometimes complex and associated. They may concern different stages of sperm production or sperm transport and maybe acquired or congenital. For several years, the involvement of the environment in male infertility has been the subject of much research. When a man is treated for infertility, all factors that may impact fertility must be considered, and a complete workup must be performed. The aim of our work is to describe the general profile of male infertility in patients at the in vitro fertilization center (IRIFIV) Casablanca, Morocco. This is a retrospective and descriptive study of 331 patient records seen in consultation for a couple’s marital infertility between January and October 2019. The mean age of the patients was 37.5 years. The mean duration of infertility was 5.5 years. Infertility was primary in 70.9% of cases and secondary in 29.1% of cases. Clinically, varicocele was the most frequent anomaly in 65.9% of the patients. The seminogram was disturbed in 72% of cases. The primary disturbances were oligozoospermia in 40.20 % of cases and asthenozoospermia in 37% of cases. The general pattern of infertility is polymorphous. The causes of the observed male infertility are multifactorial. Male infertility is usually caused by a quantitative and qualitative sperm abnormality. The improvement of infertility management must involve new research avenues, mainly genetic and immunological, to identify the usually hidden causes of infertility.
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The Influence of Incubation Temperatures 25°C versus 36°C on Sperm Survival after Improvement

Chaymaa Kabir-Idrissi, Achraf Zakaria, Mustafa Zakaria, Sabri Yassir, Abdelghani Mrini, Bouchra El Khalfi, Abdelaziz Soukri, Modou Mamoune Mbaye* and Noureddine Louanjli DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v02i06006

Just like in women, the causes of infertility in men are many and varied. To remedy this, several couples resort to medically assisted procreation (PAM). However, the latter comes up against the problem of the sperm quality of the donor. For this, subnormal semen samples are treated with specific chemical agents before artificial insemination to improve the fertilizing power of the sperm. Because sperm health plays a decisive role in male fertility, survival is correlated with the fertilizing power of sperm. It is in this perspective that our study is part of our study consisting in following the survival of the sperm after improvement and incubation at 25 °C versus 36 °C in order to find the optimal temperature of incubation for an apparent increase. Poor results from in vitro fertilization (-20%). The results of the effect of incubating samples at 25 °C and 36 °C on the mobility and vitality of human spermatozoa which were followed in different incubation times (1,2, 3 and 4h) showed that ‘after 1 hour of incubation the mobility and vitality at 25 °C dropped considerably compared to that of the sample at 36°C. After 2 hours of incubation time, we note that the two samples drop drastically but still with the samples at 36°C which have kept the best mobility and vitality. This same phenomenon was also noted at 2 and 3 hours of incubation at 25 and 36 °C. It should be remembered that the most favorable temperature was 36°C because the highest fertilization rate was noted at this temperature.
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Study of Nematode in relation to Root rot disease (Macrophomina phaseolina) in Mulberry

S. Vanitha*, M. M. Deshmukh, M. Pooshna Sri DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v02i06007

Root rot disease has become more alarming because of its epidemic nature and propensity to kill the plant completely. M. phaseolinais a soil borne pathogen was isolated from various root rot disease affected samples collected from the mulberry gardens ofTamil Nadu , South India. The affected plants show sudden withering of leaves followed by death of plants along with decaying and rotting of roots and stem cuttings. The disease is soil borne in nature and spreads fast primarily through contaminated soil, irrigation, diseased saplings farm implements etc. The population of nematodes in soil was assessed at the time of termination of the experiment by drawing a composite sample of 250g soil from each pot. The root system of the plants was carefully removed and dipped in a bucket of water for assessing adult nematode population in the root. the incidence of major nematodes namely, Meloidogyne incognita, Rotylenchus reniformis and Helicotylenchus ulcinctus populations varied from place to place, soil to soil and depends upon season to season.the maximum nematode population in mulberry garden viz., M. incognita in 58 (No./200cc soil), R. reniformis 34 (No./200cc soil) and H. ulcinctus 29 (No./200cc soil) in Erode district, where as low population of M. incognita (07 No./200cc soil) in Dharmapuri district, R. reniformis (13 No./200cc soil) in Tirunelveli District and (12 No./200cc soil) H. ulcinctus in Krishnagiri District, respectively.
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Evaluation of Comparative Performance of Hydroponically raised wheat nurseries of Varieties DBW-173, DBW-187 and DBW-222

Abha Saxena*, Krishna Gopal, Deepti Rai and Anup Kalra DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v02i06008

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the second most important crop after rice in India. Wheat crop is affected by high terminal heat stress. The available varieties does not offer high yields. Disease Infestation at vegetative and growth phase is often observed which affects the yield and hence income of the farmers. Thus development of short duration, heat tolerant, high yielding, and disease resistant varieties is seen as a viable option for preventing yield losses in this region. ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal- Haryana has developed 3 high yielding varieties DBW-173, DBW- 187 and DBW-222 which offers yield per acre in the range 24- 27q/acre. These varieties offer resistance to different diseases. Through our research trial we have evaluated the agronomic performance of these high yielding varieties. The trial was conducted at our R&D centre located at, Chidana, Sonipat. The experiment had 3 treatments, Treatment 1 Wheat Nursery of these varieties were raised hydroponically and transplanted in soil. In treatment 2 mycorrizal compost was added while transplantation in soil and in Treatment 3 wheat was sown with traditional broadcasting method. We observed that the highest yield was observed in DBW- 187 follwoed by DBW-222& DBW-173. The results of treatment 1 and 2 were better than treatment 3 in terms of maturity, lodging, disease infestation and crop yield.
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Modeling and Comparative Analysis of Connecting ROD

Ajay Kumar Agarwal*, and Parvinder Bangar DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v02i06009

A Connecting Rod is one of the most important components of an IC Engine of a vehicle. After considering the mechanical property of a connecting rod, it directly influence the trust ability and longevity of the engine, the rigidity of the connecting rod acted upon the alternative applied loads which must be guaranteed in its design. So it is required very much to untangle the model of connecting rod through the stress analysis using ANSYS software. In this paper, firstly the 3D models of this engine part are built in the software “CATIA V5” and are then transferred to “ANSYS”. The analysis of a connecting rod throws distortion and stress analytically which provides a conceptual support to enhance the design by weigh reduction.
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Potential of Fresh Water Green Microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus in Producing High Quality Biodiesel

J. A. Lone*, F. A. Lone, K. Toppo, K. R. Hakeem and S. A. Dar DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v02i06010

Aim: The present investigation was carried out to study the potential of green microalga Scenedesmus dimorphus as a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production. Methodology: The growth analysis pattern of this robust alga in the Bold Basal media showed that the specie is fast growing and reached a stationary phase on 14th day of incubation only and is suitable for high-density culture. Based upon its rapid growth this promising specie of microalgae was selected for large scale biomass production in indigenous made 25 liter lab scale photobioreactor. The microalga thrived very efficiently and harvested biomass was lypholized and subjected to lipid extraction by Soxhlet method (1875). The microalgal oil was subjected to fatty acid and physico- chemical analysis also. Results: The fatty acid methyl ester profile showed that the specie possess appreciable amounts of primary fatty acids with carbon chain length of C16 to C18 viz oleic acid 21.1 %, palmitic acid 18.9 % and linoleic 13.1 % making suitable feedstock for the production of good quality biodiesel. The quality parameters of the microalgal oil like degree of unsaturation, cetane number, iodine value, saponification value were within the limits of National petroleum agency(ANP 255), American society for testing and materials (ASTM D6751) and European biodiesel (EN 14214) international standards respectively. Interpretation: The highly dense (0.980 g cc-1) and viscous (0.539 Pa s) oil of microalga reveal that transesterification is a crucial step in minimizing these characteristics of the oil and converting the algal oil into biodiesel. Overall, our results suggest that Scenedesmus dimorphus is the promising isolate for producing high-quality biodiesel.
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1

Various Pathogenesis involved in the Development of Type-II Diabetes Mellitus and its Management Processes

Ranjit Tajpuriya*, Manjunatha P. Mudugal, Akanksh Das, Abir Lal Samanta DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v02i05001

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder in which beta cells of the pancreas cannot secrete completely, or enough insulin is required for the body to maintain the blood glucose level in the body. There are several causes of the disorder which mainly include dietary factors and lack of physical activity. Obesity and genetic factors also contribute in leading to the state of diabetes. There are various secondary complications of the disease, such as diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. This is one of the multisystem diseases which destroys multiple other systems in the body, including the cardiovascular system, nervous system. This is one of the global burdens for the modern world as the proper treatment of the disease is still unavailable. The only available for the disease is the management of the disease. Type I diabetes mellitus can only be managed by regular insulin therapy in which patients take an insulin injection as per the dosage required by the body. There are various oral hypoglycemic agents for the management of Type II diabetes mellitus. As the proper treatment of the disease is undiscovered, still multiple approaches are made for the treatment. There are various other herbal and natural products which are used for the management of the disease, although these natural products do not have any good results. One of the approaches is to permanent reversal of the disease called reverse diabetes. The process of reverse diabetes involves the regeneration of the beta cells of the pancreas, due to which the amount of insulin required for the body can be secreted, and the blood glucose level can be maintained. Some of the other approaches for the reversal of diabetes include bariatric surgery, pancreas transplantation, and transplantation of islets of the pancreas.
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Solar Conversion Technology and Applications for Future Prospects

Mahesh Chandra* DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v02i05002

“Dependent energy for powering our homes, enterprises and communities” is also increasing with a growing worldwide population. The creation and development of renewable energy is the key to “maintaining a sustainable energy level and protecting our environment against climate change.” Today,”26 per cent of world electricity comprises renewable energy sources.” However, according to the ‘International Energy Agency’, it is predicted to reach 30 percent by 2024”. “This is a key time for energy from renewable sources.” In the future, renewable sources of energy are predicted to continue to grow as energy demand increases. This will lower renewable energy prices - wonderful for the planet and fantastic for our wallets. Solar power is becoming one of renewable energy’s most important sources. To learn about the future status of “technology” for solar conversion as well as know the pricing, solar energy-using process was investigated and convert sunlight to power in general. Research has been assigned certain systems for the evaluation of such technologies. “Knowing the future status of solar converters and the costs of bulk power competing technologies.”
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Coronavirus: Etiology of the COVID-19 Pandemic

Gurpreet Kaur* and Mudit Chandra DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v02i05003

This article provides information on the etiological agent of COVID-19, the Coronavirus also named as SARS-CoV-2. It provides information on the viral taxonomy, structure, viral proteins, transcription and replication of the virus.
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Effect of Watering Intervals (water stress) on Growth Performance of Okra Plants in Makurdi Benue State

Liamngee Kator*, Justina Oma Obute, Fayinminu Akintade Ojo DOI: 10.46890/SL.2020.v02i05004

Background and Objective: Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a very popular vegetable in the world due to its acceptability in most markets. The effect of water stress on Okra plants under different water treatment conditions was investigated. Materials and Methods: Horticultural pots were filled with about 6000grams of soil. Two varieties of okra namely raining season and Clemson spineless were sown in the soils and were watered constantly for a period of 14 days after which watering intervals of 3, 5, and 7days were imposed. The experiment was arranged in a 2x4 factorial scheme fitted into a completely randomized design. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance and the Fisher’s least significant difference was used to separate means at 5% level of significance. Results: Significantly higher height for Clemson spineless variety (15.48) compared to raining season variety (12.89). Higher number of leaves, number of shed leaves and days to flowering were recorded for raining season variety (8.60, 0.48 and 16.83) compared to Clemson spineless (8.52, 0.46 and 16.50). Significantly higher height, number of leaves and fewer days to first flowering were recorded for control (16.50, 9.38, and 16.46) compared to 3days (14.47, 9.04 and 16.50), 5days (13.35, 8.67 and 16.75) and 7days (12.44, 7.17 and 16.96) respectively. Higher number of shed leaves were recorded for 7days (0.92) compared to 3days (0.29) 5days (0.46) and control (0.21). Interaction between Clemson spineless variety and control produced significantly higher height (18.22) compared to all other interactions except interaction between Clemson spineless variety and 3 days watering interval (16.02). Number of leaves was significantly higher for interactions between raining season variety and control (9.58) compared to the other interactions. Interaction between raining season variety at 3days watering interval and interaction of Clemson spineless and control each produced significantly lower number of shed leaves (0.25) than the other treatment interactions. Interaction between Clemson spineless and the control produced significantly lower number of days to flowering (16.33) compared to other treatment combinations. Conclusion: Crops watered daily resulted in better growth than those subjected to water stress. Okra plants should be provided with adequate water supply so as to ensure their effective growth and development.
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Evolution and Revolution of 3D printing in India – Design and Synthesis Analysis Aspects on a Product (Mobile case) Material Selection

Ajay Kumar Agarwal* and Parvinder Bangar DOI: 10.10.46890/SL.2020.v02i05005

3D printing is a rapid prototyping technology which became popular in the approximate last two years. It builds objects through layer-by-layer printing which is based on digital model files. As a new technology in rapid manufacturing, 3D printing is rapidly emerging and will become an important part of the manufacturing industry in the future. This paper introduces the basic principle of 3D printing technology and the current development trend. The printing model is analyzed in detail from four aspects of saving printing materials, improving the strength, increasing the stability and improving the supporting structure, and the related optimization methods are put forward. Structural optimization can reduce the consumption of printed materials, reduce printing costs and eliminate the structural defects of the 3D model. Through the optimization of 3D model, 3D printing technology can continue to make progress.
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1

Comparative study of two SARS-COV 2 qRT-PCR kits with two types of internal controlsx`

Achraf Zakaria, Modou Mamoune Mbaye*, Noha Kobbi, Abdelaziz Soukri, Bouchra El Khalfi and Noureddine Louanjli DOI: 10.10.46890/SL.2021.v02i06001

Coronavirus is a virus that was unknown before the outbreak in Wuhan (China) in December 2019 but today it has become a major public health problem. Indeed, Covid-19 is an infectious and acute disease but it can also be very deadly especially with certain comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction or even chronic bronchitis. The qRT-PCR is the reference method for the diagnosis of Covid-19. Nevertheless, it is a delicate technique whose result depends on several parameters such as the quality of the sample, the RNA extraction steps, the cDNA synthesis, the choice of the amplification kit, the choice of controls, the analysis and the validation of the results. Any anomalies in these steps may hinder the obtaining of relevant and reliable biological results. The objective of this paper is to verify the importance and analytical efficiency of the endogenous and exogenous controls used in two diagnostic tests for Sars-cov2 by qRT-PCR commonly used in the laboratory of medical analysis and biology of reproduction, Labomac Casablanca.
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2

Impact of the DNA Fragmentation Index on some Characteristic Parameters of Sperm Quality

Modou Mamoune Mbaye*, Ben Salah Kamal, Achraf Zakaria, Mustafa Zakaria, Bouchra ElKhalfi, Mohammed Zarqoui, Abdelaziz Soukri and Noureddine Louanjli

The DNA fragmentation index (DFI) is an essential factor in assessing the quality of the genetic material of human sperm. Its influence on the characteristic parameters of sperm quality remains a matter of debate. Ours work aim to find a correlation between the DNA fragmentation index and the characteristic parameters of sperm quality, namely: sperm count, motility, vitality, and morphology. The results showed a coefficient of determination between 0.11 and 0.17 suggesting a weakly negative correlation between DFI and motility, vitality, and even count. The correlation found between the sperm DNA fragmentation index and the rate of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa was much weaker, suggesting an absence of correlation.
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Effect of Origanum vulgare essential oil supplementation on advanced parameters of mobility and vitality in human normozoospermia samples

Sanni Mazidath Modjissola Abéo, Chaymaa Kabir-Idrissi, Amina Benzaouiya, Bouchra El Khalfi, Mustafa Zakaria, Sabri yassir, Mohammed Zarqoui, Abdelaziz Soukri, Achraf Zakaria, Modou M. Mbaye and Noureddine Louanjli

Male infertility, which corresponds to half of the cases in a couple infertility, is assessed primarily by sperm parameters such as sperm motility and vitality. These, according to WHO standards, provide information on the fertility potential of a man. Thus, patients with abnormal sperm parameters are more likely to fail in medically assisted procreation because a lack of sperm mobility and vitality reveals aberrations in the paternal genome. Phytotherapy, which highlights numerous molecules known for their therapeutic and anti-infectious, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and other properties, seems to be suitable for improving spermatic parameters. Also, Oreganum vulgare, an essential oil that has already proven itself in traditional medicine and known for various curative actions, would be an asset in spermiology? Thus, in our study, we evaluated the effect of a supplementation of this essential oil in fresh sperm ejaculates. The vitality and mobility of spermatozoa were the parameters studied after 24, 48 and 72 hours of suspension of a clean fraction of spermatozoa in Origanum vulgare.
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Evaluation of Phytochemical and Nutritional Potential of Dry Fish (sukhua) available in Odisha Coastal Areas, India

Babita Kumari*, Hitesh Solanki, Saima Khursheed, Shawana Manzoor and Ibraq Khurshid DOI: 10.10.46890/SL.2021.v02i06004

Foods can be divided into three groups based on the value-added through processing by drying. In the case of cereals, legumes, and root crops, very little value is added per ton processed. More value per unit mass is added to foods such as vegetables, fruits, and fish, and considerably more to high-value crops such as spices, herbs, medicinal plants, nuts, bioactive materials, and enzymes. Fish and fishery products play an essential role in human nutrition as a source of proteins, fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and micronutrients. As we know, Fresh fish deteriorates quickly unless some way can be found to preserve it. Drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the food, which inhibits the growth of microorganisms. Open-air drying and Sun drying is the ancient method of food preservation and still been practiced since then. An attempt has been made to collect information about the variety, value and health benefits of consuming dried fish. The knowledge of diversity of dried fish was compiled from type of dried fish shop in Balijatra field (Cuttack ) , Sunakhala ( Nayagarh) , Sarua (Khordha) , Atharabanki (Paradeep) and Rice meal (Paradeep) . The information regarding steps of making dry fish has been collected from dry fish godown, local shops and fisher men in Paradeep. The survey was completed from November 2019 to February 2020 to collect the information regarding diversity, process and production of dry fish. Result revealed that dried fish are rich in quality protein, containing 80- 85% protein with fewer calories. 100gm of dried fish contains 80% protein with 300 calories. Most dried fish contains little cholesterol while being high in essential vitamins and minerals. It is a natural product and has retained an immense amount of omega -3 fatty acid and antioxidants from fresh fish. This profile makes dried fish a compelling purchase for those looking to increase their healthy food intake and provides distinct advantages to dries fish retailers. This study aims to study the status of nutritional and phytochemical constituents of dry fish available in adjacent coastal areas of Odisha.
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Assessment of breast cancer screening services uptake amid women of childbearing age in three senate zones of Abia State, Nigeria

Uzochukwu G. Ekeleme, Elendu C. Onwuchekw, Roseline O. Nwokoro , Oha Ndubuisi, Onuigbo C. Martin, Maduagwu Queen Chinyere, Ikwuagwu Vivian DOI: 10.10.46890/SL.2021.v02i06005

Introduction: Globally, Breast cancer is a threat to human life. One of the best techniques in tackling breast cancer disease is to get women screened for the disease earlier enough. Aim: this was a community-based cross-sectional study aimed at assessment of breast cancer screening services uptake amid women of child-bearing age in three senate zones of Abia State, Nigeria. Method: The participants were sampled using a multi-stage technique. A total of 1176 women were studied, a validated questionnaire was administered to obtain information from the respondents that consented to the study. Breast cancer uptake was considered as having been screened with at least one of the three known methods such as breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE), and mammography. Data analysis was performed using descriptive technique and Chi-square test for association in the data. Results:The overall level of breast cancer screening services uptake was 25.1% and uptake was 23.7% for BSE, 21.3% for CBE, and 3.7% for mammography. Up to 85.1% of those have been screened only once a year. The women (52.2%) are aware of any breast cancer screening services. Significant socio-demographic associating factors of uptake for breast cancer screening services include age (χ2=50.44, p=0.0001), marital status (χ2=47.81, p=0.001), education (χ2=393, p=0.0001) occupation (χ2=319.4, p=0.0001), income (χ2= 268.7, p=0.0001) and age at first pregnancy (χ2=74.8, p=0.0001). Uptake was highest among the 45 -49 years (32.9%), married (31.4%), tertiary education level participants (68.7%), Public / civil servants (66.5%). Family history was also found as another significant associating factor and up to 80.5% among the family history group undertook breast cancer screening services uptake compared to 9.2% among the non- family history group. Conclusion: Uptake in breast cancer screening is quite low among the study group possibly due to low level of knowledge, poor attitude, family history, and other associating factors. To attain better health free from breast cancer among women of childbearing age, these associating factors must be effectively tackled in Abia State, Nigeria.
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Preferences and Perceptions of Female Patients undergoing Mammography: A Prospective study

Sarafraz Arqum Shah*, S. Nizamudeen , Shilpa Singh and Kripanand Yadav DOI: 10.10.46890/SL.2021.v02i06006

Mammography is most important in the detection of breast cancer but due to its intimate nature and the perception that it is uncomfortable and painful; many women do not optimally support mammography as a diagnostic and screening tool for breast cancer. Many factors influence the experience of patients. This research explored the preferences and perceptions of patients regarding mammographer’s gender and personality traits as well as student’s involvement in mammography. The study was empirical in nature and data was collected using a valid and reliable self-formulated questionnaire. The approach was quantitative and a small qualitative component added dimension to the quantitative results. A no probability, convenience sampling method was employed and questionnaires were distributed in radiography section. Data analysis indicated that while many women accept males in the mammography setting, most prefer female mammographers and students. In general, women accept student presence during mammogram procedures. Personality traits that enhance effective communication and promote patient emotions such as trust, being safe and being cared for are favored by patients. This research adhered to stipulations of the Indian Patients’ Rights Charter and the call of the Breast Cancer research into breast health care. The findings serve as benchmarks for patient opinions regarding mammography staff and will be of use in various fields concerning mammography, such as human resources, training and education and quality assurance of care.
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Evaluation of Quality Control of Some Static and Portable X-ray Units in Maharishi Markandeshwar Hospital India

Upendra Kumar Ojha and Sarafraz Arqum Shah*. DOI: 10.10.46890/SL.2021.v02i06007

The quality assurance of all the radiographic instruments is very important for ensuring its proper and better functioning. Quality assurance (QA) is a management programme that ensures that diagnostic image quality is maintained with the least amount of risk and distress to patients. Periodic quality control tests, preventative maintenance procedures, administrative systems, and training are all part of the programme. The present study is a prospective study and the aim to conduct is study is to evaluate the quality control. It is a prospective study which was carried out on seven X-ray units of Radiology department at Maharishi Markandeshwar Hospital, Mullan, Ambala, Haryana. In this study seven units of X-ray units were evaluated in which five were fixed and two were portable for their quality assurance through different test such as Congruence of radiation and optical fields, Focal spot size measurement etc. The results of the study revealed the good quality and proper functioning of all the instruments used in the present study.
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Effect of Bay width on Design Parameters Bending Moment and Shear Force

Abrar Manzoor*. DOI: 10.10.46890/SL.2021.v02i06008

The economy of a multi-story building depends on the spacing of columns which in turn depends on panel size of slab .This study was carried out to find the effect of bay width on various design parameters like bending moment and shear force of beams and columns, also design load and design axial moment of columns, to find the optimum spacing which leads to the most economical building keeping plot area of 30 m x 30 m (constant ) having 6-stories. The entire modelling and analysis was carried out using the finite element method using the STAAD pro tool and was designed as per are IS 456:2000. The four models having different bay widths (7.5 m, 6 m, 5 m, 4.285 m). These models were subjected to general loadings such as live load corresponding to IS 875 parts 1 and 2 respectively; also earthquake loads corresponding to I.S. 1893:2002. The finding was to investigate the behaviour of column and beam as per design load, design axial moment of each story of each model, variation was studied within different model alsocurvesaredrawnfordesignload,axialmoment,bendingmoment, theshearforce of beams and columns of each story. The result show all variations of design loads and parameters. However, to reduce the complexity with the increase in population and construction requirement to accommodate more people per unit of land and decrease the cost per unit area of the structure, this research study selected work optimum size and spacing of structural components.
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Review on Nano gold and Nano silver for cervical Cancer Therapy

A Mohamed Sikkander, Sangeeta R Mishra , K. Kavitha. DOI: 10.46890/SL.2022.v03i01.001

Cervical cancer is one of the primary causes of female death, with a mortality rate in developing areas surpassing 200,000 per year. Despite a decrease in cervical cancer cases in affluent countries over the last decade, the prevalence in developing countries continues to climb at an alarming rate. The rise in cervical cancer incidence is ascribed to a lack of financial resources and the disease’s inherent risk factors. Reduced drug potency, non-specificity, undesirable side effects, and the development of multiple drug resistance (MDR) limit traditional anticancer therapy, resulting in a decline in long-term anticancer therapeutic efficacy. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in cancer therapies has spawned a new field of study known as cancer nanomedicine. NPs, in contrast to standard anti-cancer medications, take a targeted strategy that avoids side effects. We discussed the role of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs) in cancer nanomedicine in this communication. Bionanotechnology has played a critical role in creating a novel medicine, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), for cancer treatment. In this study, we discovered that photosynthesized Catharanthus roseus (CR) AuNPs trigger mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signalling pathways via reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cytotoxicity in the cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) using an in vitro model. Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in current nanotechnology. Their antibacterial properties have also been thoroughly reported. Green nanoparticle production has various advantages over chemical synthesis. In this study, silver nanoparticles mediated by Thuja occidentalis leaf extract were produced without needing a stabilising agent and examined for anticancer and antimicrobial properties. Silver nanoparticles mediated by Thuja occidentalis leaf extract were generated in ambient conditions. They showed a narrow size distribution within the range of 10–15 nm, with an average particle size of 12.7 nm. At concentrations of 6.25–50 g/mL, these nanoparticles showed anti-cancer efficacy against human breast (MCF 7, MDA MB 231), cervical cancer (HeLa), and mouth epidermoid carcinoma (KB) cell lines.
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An Overview of Petroleum Production in India Since Independence

Sentu Shaikh DOI: 10.46890/SL.2022.v03i01.002

The petroleum production industry is fundamental to India’s economic development. Despite the global economic slump, India’s demand for crude oil remains stable. The purpose of this study was to understand the trends and pattern of petroleum production in the country since independence. In nature, it is a descriptive investigation. Secondary data is used in this study. It is gathered from the Government of India ministry of petroleum and natural gas report, journals, newspapers and financial websites. The findings of this study reveal that petroleum production has increased since independence however, it is experiencing stability in the production these days and we are heavily relying on imports to fulfil our indigenous demands. The main objective of this study is to analyse trends and patterns of petroleum production in the country.
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Efficacy of Moringa oliefera Lam. leaf and seed powder on postharvest Cowpea Seed bruchid (C. maculatus Fab.) during Storage

Liamngee K*, Fayinminu A. O, Agbatar B. L, ornenge B. I, San S. J, Ibrahim E. M

The efficacy of Moringa oliefera Lam. leaf and Seed powder on Cowpea Seed Bruchid (C. maculatus) during Storage was investigated. Two groups of cowpea; one free from weevil infestation and the other consisting of highly infested seeds were obtained from farmers in Makurdi. Moringa oliefera leaf and seed powders were produced by drying the leaves and seeds of the Moringa plant, grinding it with pestle and mortar and sieving to get fine powder; after which three concentrations of 0g, 30g and 45g were prepared for assessment tests. Five pairs each of Callosobruchus maculatus F. consisting of males and females were introduced into plastic containers containing 300g each of wholesome cowpea seeds and left undisturbed for seven days; after which the parent weevils were removed and eggs laid by the parent weevils were allowed to develop. Emerged progenies were introduced into the various treatment levels and left for a period of 28days after which data on quality parameters were taken. The experiment was arranged in 3×2 factorial in a completely randomized design. Days, taken for egg laying by seed bruchid on cowpea was 4days while that for progeny emergence was 23days. Moringa oliefera seed powder produced significantly higher weight, germination and insect mortality (36.65g, 65.75% and 5.22 respectively) compared to Moringa leaf powder (36.28, 65.78% and 4.44). Also significantly higher weight, germination and insect mortality was recorded for cowpea seeds treated with 45g Moringa powder (39.33, 84.67 and 7.83 respectively) compared to 30g (37.92, 61.00 and 4.33 respectively) and 0% (32.16, 43.33 and 2.33 respectively) while higher insect population and grain with holes was recorded for grains treated with 0g of Moringa powder (28.00 and 31.50) compared to 30g (15.67 and 18.50) and 45g (13.50 and 13.33), respectively. Moringa oliefera leaf and seed powder was an effective insecticidal agent against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. They have significant effect on weight maintenance, suppression of weevil population, increasing mortality rate of weevil, prevention of holes in grains and enhancing germination performance which is an indicator of crop viability.
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Bioactive components of Onion (Allium cepa L.) and its health effects: a mini review

Vishal Sharma, Pushpa C. Tomar*

Onion is an important vegetable which plays a vital role in everyday cooking not only in India but also every part of the world. It belongs to the Allium family of plants, which also includes chives, garlic and leaks. Usually there are three types of onions, yellow, red and white. Onions are commonly used while cooking other vegetables, which will increase the taste of these vegetables. Onion tastes differently when it is added to different types of food dishes. It’s also eaten raw or used as salad with different food dishes. Onions are not only rich in their nutritional values but also have amazing properties to cure or protect from various diseases. Onions are loaded with multiple vitamins minerals and anti-oxidants. Onions have great positive effects on several different aspects of health; moreover onions are very rich in their nutritional value. They are high in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants while being low in calories. One cup of chopped onion provides calories14.9 grams (g) of carbohydrate, 0.16 g of fat, 0 g of cholesterol, 2.72 g of fiber, 6.78 g of sugar and 1.76 g of protein Onions also contain small amounts of calcium, iron, folate, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, the antioxidants, quercetin and sulfur. Onions are powered with vitamin C, B6, Phytonutrients, and a wallop of antioxidants including flavonoids - quercetin and sulphuric compound allicin. Its rich antioxidant profile makes this wonder bulb efficient in protecting cancer. Use of onions regulates the blood sugar, lowers the blood pressure, reduces the aging process, helps to make the skin and hair glowing and healthy, and helps to regulate the sleep disorders etc
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Standardization and Pharmacological Investigation of Different Extracts of Brassica juncea Seed for Wound Healing Activity

Sanjay Kumar* and Ranjit Singh. DOI: 10.46890/SL.2022.v03i01.005

Majority of the global population from developing countries relies on herbal medicines for cure of diseases. The ability to sense the environment and sustain physico-chemical and thermal homeostasis is dependent on our skin. Healing process is the mechanism of repairing the skin and other soft tissues after an injury. Brassica juncea has traditionally been used for its antibacterial and antioxidant properties. The current research was intended to investigate the wound-healing behaviour of B. juncea in order to generate comprehensive scientific evidence. Excision and incision wound models were used to test the wound-healing effectiveness of aqueous, ethanolic, and petroleum ether extracts of B. juncea. Physical analyses of the crude compound were carried out along with the quantitative analysis of phenolics and flavonoids. The rate of wound contraction, the duration of full epithelialization, and the tensile strength of the incision wound were investigated. The three extracts from B. juncea seeds were noted to heal the wound, as evidenced by a reduction in epithelialization time, an improvement in wound contraction rate, and increased skin-breaking ability. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts have characteristics that make them effective in wound- healing action as compared to a placebo control, according to the current report.
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Preparation And Evaluation Of Bifonazole Hydrogel For Topical Application

G. B Kiran Kumar*, Prakash Goudanavar, Ankit Acharya , B. Ramesh DOI: 10.46890/SL.2022.v03i02.001

The present work aimed to prepare and evaluate the topical hydrogel formulation of an anti-fungal drug Bifonazole. Total 10 batches of Bifonazole (1% w/w) hydrogel formulations were prepared by using two different polymers i.e., HPMC K100M and chitosan. SLS, PEG 400 and Oleic acid were used as permeation enhancers. Methyl paraben and propyl paraben were used as preservative. Prepared hydrogel was evaluated for pH, viscosity, rheology, spreadability, drug content, in-vitro diffusion studies, ex-vivo skin permeation studies, release kinetics studies and short-term stability studies. All batches of gel formulations showed uniform homogeneity and spreadability. The physical appearance of the gel formulations was white translucent in nature. pH of the gel formulation was suitable for topical application. Formulation batches containing combination of polymers showed significantly increased viscosity when compared to control formulation. The highest drug permeability was achieved when permeation enhancers were used in the formulation. Release profile was increased with increase in permeation enhancer concentration. Highest percentage of drug release and permeability was achieved from formulation F8. The in-vitro release profile of drug from all gel formulations followed zero order kinetics and showed Super case II transport mechanism. Short term stability studies showed that physicochemically stable throughout the stability period. In conclusion, permeation enhancerbased hydrogel formulation of Bifonazole was successfully formulated to improve the drug release and skin permeability.
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In vitro antioxidant properties and GC-MS analysis of solvent extracts of Persea americana Leaf

Temidayo Ogunmoyole*, Oluwapelumi Grace Alfonso, Olaitan Daniel Johnson, Akeem Adewale Yusuff DOI: 10.46890/SL.2022.v03i02.002

Persea americana has been widely utilized in the traditional parlance for the management of diseases. The present study investigates the in vitro antioxidant mechanism(s) as well as the active principles responsible for the acclaimed therapeutic potentials of the plant. Powdered leaves of Persea americana leaves was extracted in ethanol, methanol and water and assessed for their total phenolic and flavonoids contents following established protocols. Free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radicals as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) were also determined. Moreover, structure and relative abundance of phytochemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Persea americana leaves was determined on gas-chromatography-mass spectrometer (GCMS). Results indicate that methanolic extract exhibited significantly higher DPPH and NO radical scavenging and ferric reducing power than aqueous and ethanolic extract. However, aqueous extract of the plant has the highest total phenolic and flavonoids content of the three extracts investigated. GC-MS chromatogram of the methanolic extract of Persea americana leaves reveals the presence of eighteen phytochemicals. Phytochemicals content of P. americana leaves depends on the extraction solvent, while its antioxidant activity is not only a function of amount of phenols and flavonoids but of the individual antioxidant capacity of the phytochemicals.
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